Histology Explained

Histology Explained

Histology Explained

The body is divided into different parts, both external and internal and there are several fields of human endeavor that study each part. One of the numerous fields is histology. This field is related to both physiology and anatomy as it helps us to understand the relationship between structure and function. You will find out more details about what the field is, careers in the field, and many others. Keep reading for more information.

What is histology?

There are several cells and tissues in both plants and humans. Each tissue type has unique cells based on the functions of the organism. Histology is now the scientific study of the microscopic structure of these cells and tissues. Histology uses some advanced methods of imaging to identify, then analyze the structures present in each tissue. Specialized systems such as electron microscopy and light microscopy are used to see the tiny structures on some of the specialized samples.

Through histology of different tissue samples, researchers could have clued into unknown tissues, and the roles of the tissues, and also identify any potential disease in the tissue or cell sample of an organism. It will not only identify the disease, but it will also identify the possible causes of the disease and the appropriate treatment. Scientists are now using the methods and principles of histology to get answers to some fundamental questions in their field. For instance, botanists now use methods of histology to determine the nutrient level of plants and to identify the deprived ones.

Histology encompasses the structure and study of different cells and tissues. Hence, it has extended to almost all fields in science because of its usefulness both in preparing and visualizing tissues. The result that each researcher will get depends on the organism and the understanding of the researcher of the histology of the organism. For instance, it is unlikely that a zoologist will understand a human heart unlike how he or she will understand the relatively familiar tissues of an animal.

Basic procedures in histology

Procedures of histology such as staining and observation of cells have evolved over the years. It, however, begins when the researcher uses light microscopy to observe tissue samples. The basic of these procedures is when the sample cell is washed over by specialized formulated staining material that will only stick on special parts of the sample cells. After a while, the material will be removed with water, and only the targeted part of the sample cells such as the DNA will remain. This will then make it easier for the cell to be visualized and analyzed.

The researcher can also make use of another technique which is known as sectioning. It is mostly used in conjunction with the staining method in visualizing the internal parts of the cell. The basis of this technique is that the researcher will fix the sample cell in a solid material. The aim of this is to get rid of some sections of the cell that are not needed for the research. The researcher has to be precise while doing this so that the internal component of the cell will remain intact. Alternatively, the sample cell can also be frozen and then taken apart later. All these techniques and the use of electron microscopy have enhanced the field of histology.

Careers in histology

One of the primary concerns of histologists is to identify the various structures in the tissue and cells of an organism. The invention of the microscope has widened the field and helped with the understanding of the histology of most organisms. Several professional fields require knowledge of histology. Highlighted below are some of the careers in histology.

A law enforcement agent

In solving some crimes, especially the ones that require the use of DNA, law enforcement needs the knowledge of a cytologist. A cytologist will help in solving such crimes by analyzing the structures of cells that are available in bodily fluids at the crime scene. Clues from the analyses will be used to provide evidence that is related to DNA.

Lab personnel

A trained histologist can also work in the lab as a technician. He or she will be responsible for staining, visualizing, and analyzing structures from cell samples and tissues from research centers, clinics, and hospitals.

Also, big pharmaceutical companies require the service of histologists in testing their products before they release them into the market. The histologist could terrorize the reaction of the tissue. This information is needed for a biochemist to modify their products and also ensure that it is safe for human consumption.

Research histologist

With proper and advanced training in the field of histology, you can work as a professional who will be advancing the field by researching and creating new methods that will be useful for diagnosis. A histologist here could work at a research lab or university.

Uses of histology

Histology is useful in many areas of human endeavors just like other fields. The following are some of the areas where histology is useful.


Most medical students and biologists are trained in histology. This is because the knowledge of histology helps the students to identify the different tissues in organisms. Also, it shows the students the relationship between tissues and cells and what happens to the tissue when it is at the cellular level.


Knowledge of histology is also important in the diagnosis of some diseases both in humans, plants, and animals. The histologist will as well be able to analyze the ecological effects of the disease and its treatment if there are any.

Forensic investigation

With the field of histology, we can now have answers to some of what is termed unexplained death with the aid of forensic autopsy analysis. Microscopic examination of tissues could give clues about the cause of death and the environment.

Archaeological inquiry

Knowledge of histology could be used to analyze recovered archaeological materials such as bones and teeth. The data from these materials could be used for further studies.


Histology is one of the most important fields now. Knowledge in this field is required by many professionals before they can function.

DNA and rDNA Explained

DNA and rDNA Explained

DNA AND rDNA Explained

Every living organism has its method of reproducing or replicating itself. These methods vary among different species. Some organisms reproduce at the cellular level, others reproduce in a more complex way.

DNA and rDNA are related scientifically and are both referred to in terms of genetic codes and information needed for reproduction and cell division. However, they vary in some ways. We’ll take a look at what both terms entail and how they function.

What Is DNA?

Deoxyribonucleic acid(DNA) is a complex organic molecular structure that contains genetic codes and information contained in a cell and is necessary for the reproduction, development, and function of an organism. They are present in eukaryotic cells( cells with a defined nucleus), prokaryotic cells( cells without a defined nucleus), and viruses as well.

Discovery Of DNA

The DNA molecule was first discovered by a Swiss researcher, Johann Friedrich Meischer while trying to study white blood cells in the year 1869. However, credit is also given to James D. Watson and Francis H.C. Crick, notable for discovering the double helix structure of the DNA in 1953.


DNA is a molecule that is two-stranded and contains codes or instructions responsible for the transmission of traits from parents to offspring. However, these instructions are being synthesized into proteins, that in turn determine the traits that are being passed to offspring during reproduction. Threadlike structures made up protein and DNA are known as Chromosomes.

DNA Composition, Structure, And Storage

A DNA strand is composed of long chain molecules known as nucleotides. Each monomer molecule however consists of 3 components: a phosphate group, a nitrogenous base, and a five carbon, deoxyribose sugar.

The structure of a DNA can also be denoted as a “twisted ladder”. It is however known to have the double helix structure. The building blocks or information stored as a code in the DNA are composed of 4 chemical bases: adenine (A), thymine (T), guanine (G), and cytosine (C)

These nitrogenous bases form pairs that constitute the double helix structure of DNA. The pattern of a pairing of these bases is as follows: A to T and C to G. Moreover, one important part of the structure of the DNA is the deoxyribose sugar, which is also known as the backbone of the structure of a DNA molecule.

What Is rDNA?

The term rDNA can be used in two different sense:

  • Recombinant DNA
  • Ribosomal DNA

Recombinant DNA

Recombinant DNA refers to the genetic combination of two different fragments of DNA, from different species, to form a new strand of DNA. This is also known as Chimera. They are also composed of 3 different methods: transformation, non-bacterial transformation, and phage introduction.

How It Works And Its Function

Recombinant DNA works when there’s a visible amount of protein expression from the host cell. However, this visible amount of protein expression must be from the host or rDNA will not be synthesized. The proteins obtained from the expression of rDNA in a living cell are known as recombinant proteins. Also, to obtain the expression of foreign proteins, specialized expression vectors.

The function and application of recombinant DNA have proven to be very useful in various sectors like healthcare, agriculture, biotechnology, and research, among others. Some specific areas of application include:

  • For producing clotting factors for cases like hemophilia
  • For the production of vaccines in cases of Hepatitis B
  • Production of insect and heat resistance crops
  • Production of human growth hormones and insulin.
  • For pharmaceuticals
  • For the prevention and production of cures for sickle cell diseases.

Ribosomal DNA

Ribosomal DNA (rDNA) is a type of DNA that is found in the ribosomes of cells. Ribosomes are responsible for protein synthesis, and rDNA plays an important role in this process. The sequence of rDNA is used to create proteins that are essential for cell function. In addition, rDNA is involved in the regulation of gene expression. Because of its important role in cell function, rDNA is a target for studies that aim to understand how genes are expressed. Additionally, rDNA has been used as a tool for identifying and classifying different species of organisms. Therefore, ribosomal DNA is a vital component of cells that plays an essential role in both protein synthesis and gene expression.

rDNA Technology

In the past, rDNA technology was thought to be just an imaginary conception that could be deployed to modify certain traits and characteristics in living bodies by controlling the expression of target genes. Thankfully, in recent times, as a result of the input by researchers, rDNA technology has demonstrated significant advancement in human life and science at large.

Recombinant DNA technology is defined as a process of merging two different molecules of DNA and inserting them into a new organism.

Another aspect of recombinant DNA technology is “DNA Cloning”-which refers to a technique used in creating copies of DNA molecules, genes or organisms and induce their reduplication in host organisms. The single partners of a clone are similar genetically because cell replication generates similar daughter cells every time.

The usage of cloning has been broadened to recombinant DNA (rDNA) technology, which has given scientists the means to produce several copies of a single fragment of DNA. The importance of recombinant DNA cannot be over-emphasized, as it has been proven to be responsible for the increase in the genetic diversity of eukaryotes. Another useful importance of recombinant DNA technology is visible in the production of insulin. Insulin is obtained from the human insulin gene that is introduced into a plasmid and then to a bacterial cell where the protein insulin is further produced.


For every form of life, there’s a means of replication and reproduction to ensure the continuity of such species in question. The stages of development and reproduction could take place at the cellular level and that is where the concept of DNA and rDNA comes in.

More so, research and technology are committed to ensuring that the application of recombinant DNA technology proves to be useful in sectors like healthcare, agriculture, and biotechnology, among others.

CRISPR Explained

CRISPR Explained

CRISPR Explained

In the last four decades, scientists have carried out a lot of experiments into understanding genes, their functions, and how they could be edited. While reasonable progress has been made in understanding genetics, especially human genetics, editing the genes still requires expertise, money, and the usage of expensive technology.

However, the development of CRISPR, a new gene editing tool in 2012 changed the course of gene editing. This tool is regarded as being precise and effective in tweaking the genomes of humans, plants, and animals. What exactly is this tool? How is it used and what are the potential concerns? Keep reading for more information.

What is CRISPR?

Firstly, it is the short form of Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats. It is a powerful tool that could be used to tweak genes. This simply means that the tool easily allows researchers or scientists to change the sequence of DNA and also modify the functions of genes. Nevertheless, it has other potential applications. With ongoing research, CRISPR has the potential to transform human health and medication. It could be used to treat and prevent some diseases, regulate immunity, enhance the growth of crops, etc.

The natural defense mechanism of bacteria was used in the development of CRISPR. Bacteria use RNA, a genetic messenger that is also close to DNA to repel attacks from viruses. While repelling this attack, these organisms will retain some bits of the virus’s DNA and store them in theirs. This stored DNA serves as a memory that will enable the organisms to quickly recognize and prevent future attacks from such viruses and other similar invaders.

How it works

Genomes contain various messages and information that are related to their DNA sequence. When editing genomes, these DNA sequences are changed and this also means a change to the information they contained. Through CRISPR, the editing could be done with the introduction of a cut that works like a pair of scissors in the DNA which will then trigger self-repair and the targeted changes will be introduced.

To direct CRISPR to the intended region of DNA, whether in humans, animals, or crops, scientists will only alter the sequence of the crRNA that binds to that of the target DNA. To simplify the process, crRNA and tracrRNA were fused to form RNA. To make it work, the researcher will first design up to 20 bases of the pairs sequence, which must all match with the gene of either the human, animal or plant you want to edit. However, the similarity of the pairs must be with the targeted gene alone and must not match with any other gene in the genome.

Once introduced, CRISPR will then cut the DNA at the intended gene and not ideally anywhere else in the genome. The process of self-repair will begin immediately. In the process of joining together the pieces of the cut DNA, the intended tweaking or editing will be carried out.

Risks and concerns about it

Despite its potential benefits, CRISPR is not yet a perfect tool because it is relatively new and this has raised some concerns. One of the major concerns of using CRISPR on humans is that it might not go to the targeted gene. For instance, it might locate and also cut any gene similar to the target. When this happens, it could lead to mutations in the other genes. There might not be any side effects, but it could also cause cancer.

The use of CRISPR on humans has been limited to cells that are not transferable to the next generation but this tool can also be used to edit the genes of the embryo. There has not been consensus about this editing which is also known as germline editing due to risk, lack of regulation, and ethical concerns. However, this doesn’t stop some researchers in the US, UK, and China from editing human embryos. This has raised concern about whether we will not have designer babies with enhanced genes that will increase their intelligence, muscle strength, and a lot more.

Another ethical concern about gene editing is that it could lead to an unintended ecological impact. For instance, an introduced trait in the gene of a target population could spread beyond such population through cross-breeding. Moreover, it could reduce the genetic uniqueness of a population, thereby putting concern for the survival of such a population.

This is not to say that efforts have not been made to regulate the usage of CRISPR. For instance, the U.S congress has banned any clinical trial that could lead to modified babies. Meanwhile, some organizations have also come up with guidelines on how to edit human embryos. With the guideline, gene editing will only be allowed for convincing reasons such as fixing faulty genes with no known medical alternatives. This will, however, be done under strict supervision.

Recent advances

With these concerns, research is ongoing on how to refine CRISPR. It has been revealed by the pioneer researchers that another enzyme could be used to edit genes in the future. The new enzymes will be smaller, more precise, and have more chances of success than the current one, Cas9 which could cut an unintended gene.

Moreover, CRISPR has also been used to develop cells that are invisible to the immune system in the body. This is because the body’s immune system will attack any foreign invader, including stem cells. When these stem cells are invisible, they will develop into adult cells that could be used to repair damaged organs in the body.

A red blood cell disease, known as beta-thalassemia disease has been cured by some CRISPR researchers. This happened when some CRISPR team took stem cells from a patient and edited them with CRISPR outside the body. This was done to increase the production of hemoglobin before the stem cell was transfused back into the body. With the announcement that CISPR-developed drug has been used to treat beta-thalassemia disease, researchers also believe that a similar approach could be used in the future to treat other blood-related diseases such as sickle cell anemia.


Research on CRISPR is advancing every day and some scientists believe that it could be used to change the course of human living for life.

Bioscience Explained

Bioscience Explained

Bioscience Explained

Bioscience is a rapidly growing field that impacts our everyday lives. In this blog post, we will explore the basics of bioscience and how it affects us. We will also discuss some of the most exciting advances in bioscience and what they could mean for the future. Bioscience is an essential part of our world, and it is constantly evolving to improve our quality of life. Let’s dive in!

What bioscience is and what it entails?

Bioscience is a branch of science that covers a wide range of topics related to living organisms. This includes areas such as botany, zoology, microbiology, physiology, and biochemistry. Bioscience also encompasses the study of how different organisms interact with each other and their environment.

In recent years, there has been an increasing focus on the role of bioscience in solving global problems such as climate change and food security. Bioscience research is also essential for developing new technologies and treatments. For example, bioscientists have played a key role in developing life-saving vaccines and treatments for diseases like Covid-19, cancer and HIV/AIDS.

As a result, bioscience has become an essential component of many interdisciplinary research initiatives. By understanding the complexities of life, bioscientists can help to create solutions that improve the quality of life for all.

Benefits of bioscience research and how it impacts our lives

The bioscience industry is a rapidly growing field that has a wide range of applications. Let’s examine some of them:

Bioscience research helps us understand the world around us and how it works

Bioscience research plays a vital role in improving our understanding of the natural world and the complex processes that underpin life on Earth. This knowledge is essential for developing new technologies and medicines, and for tackling pressing global challenges such as climate change and food security.

Bioscience has helped to improve the quality of life, from developing new medications to increasing crop yields

Bioscience research has led to major breakthroughs in medicine, and agriculture and continues to play a critical role in improving the quality of our lives. Take, for instance, the development of vaccines.

Through bioscience research, we have been able to develop vaccines for Covid-19, polio and smallpox. In addition, bioscience research has also led to major breakthroughs in agriculture.

For example, by understanding the genetics of plants, we have been able to develop more disease-resistant and efficient crops. Also, bioscience research has also made significant contributions to our understanding of the environment and the development of sustainable practices.

Bioscience research leads to new and innovative treatments for diseases

Recent advances in gene editing and stem cell research offer exciting new prospects for treating diseases and injuries, while ongoing research into the microbiome is providing insights into how we can improve our health by manipulating the trillions of microbes that live inside our bodies. As we continue to explore the vast potential of bioscience research, it is clear that its impact on our lives will only grow in the years to come.

Bioscience research is essential for our economy and our future

Bioscience research is critical for the economy and the future. By understanding the biology of living things, we can develop new and improved products and services that have a positive impact on the world. In addition, bioscience research helps us to protect and improve our environment.

For instance, by studying the way plants and animals interact with their surroundings, we can develop better ways to manage resources and reduce pollution. Furthermore, bioscience research is essential for developing new treatments for diseases. By studying the Biology of cells and disease, we can develop new drugs and therapies that save lives. In short, bioscience research is vital for the economy and the future of our world. without it, we would be lost.

How bioscience is changing the world we live in today

Bioscience is changing the world we live in today. By understanding the biology of living things, we can develop new and improved products and services that have a positive impact on the world.

Moreover, bioscience research helps us to protect and improve our environment. For example, by studying the way plants and animals interact with their surroundings, we can develop better ways to manage resources and reduce pollution.

Furthermore, bioscience research is essential for developing new treatments for diseases. By studying the Biology of cells and disease, we can develop new drugs and therapies that save lives. In short, bioscience is changing the world we live in today for the betterment of all.

The bioscience industry is responsible for developing groundbreaking new technologies that are changing the world we live in. Bioscience is making huge strides in improving our health, food security, and environmental sustainability from gene editing and regenerative medicine to artificial intelligence and biofuels.

In the healthcare sector, bioscience is being used to develop personalized treatments for cancer and other diseases. In agriculture, it is helping to increase crop yields and improve food safety. And in the energy sector, bioscience is playing a pivotal role in developing renewable energy sources. With so many exciting advances being made, it is clear that bioscience is having a transformative effect on our world.

The future of bioscience

The future of bioscience is filled with potential but fraught with uncertainty. On the one hand, remarkable advances have been made in our understanding of the human body and the complex processes that keep us healthy.

New technologies have given us unprecedented ability to manipulate and study DNA. We can now grow organs in laboratories and 3D print human tissue. On the other hand, many challenges remain. Diseases continue to kill millions of people every year, and we are only just beginning to scratch the surface of the human genome. The ethical implications of new technologies are still being sorted out, and regulations have not kept pace with advances in the field.

As we look to the future, it is clear that bioscience will play an increasingly important role in our lives – for better or for worse. With great power comes great responsibility, and it falls to us to ensure that bioscience is used for good. Only then can we realize its full potential as a force for a healthy world.


The field of bioscience is constantly evolving, as researchers uncover new ways to harness the power of nature. In the coming years, we can expect to see even more advances in the field, as bioscientists continue to push the boundaries of what is possible.

One area that is ripe for further exploration is the use of bioscience to create new materials. For example, scientists are already using bacteria to create environmentally-friendly “bio-plastics” that can be used in a variety of applications. As our understanding of biology continues to deepen, it is likely that we will see an increasing number of such innovations in the years ahead. With their potential to improve our lives and make a positive impact on the environment, it is clear that the future of bioscience is both exciting and promising.